Monday, December 6, 2010

Myriad and the ACLU Disagree over Claim Scope, But Apparently Not over Patent Eligibility of Genetic Diagnostic Methods

After reading the briefs submitted by Myriad and the ACLU/PubPat in AMP v. PTO (the challenge to Myriad’s gene patents, described in previous posts to this blog), one thing that struck me was that the parties do not appear to disagree over the patent eligibility of genetic diagnostic methods. In fact, with respect to these method claims, the only dispute is with respect to the proper interpretation of the claims.

The challenged diagnostic method claims recite processes of either "analyzing" or "comparing" nucleotide sequences. For example, claim 1 of US patent number 6,033,857 claims:

A method for identifying a mutant BRCA2 nucleotide sequence in a suspected mutant BRCA2 allele which comprises comparing the nucleotide sequence of the suspected mutant BRCA2 allele with the wild-type BRCA2 nucleotide sequence, wherein a difference between the suspected mutant and the wild-type sequence identifies a mutant BRCA2 nucleotide sequence.

Myriad argues for a relatively narrow interpretation of the claims, under which the claims are limited to methods which require actual physical analysis of DNA molecules. Under their interpretation, the term "nucleotide sequence," as used in the claims, refers to actual polynucleotides, i.e., DNA or RNA molecules, and the step of comparing these molecules necessarily requires physically isolating polynucleotides from a patient's tissue sample, and then processing and analyzing the molecules. Myriad argues that these processes are all clearly transformative of physical molecules, and because the transformations are “central to the purpose of the claims,” the claims satisfy the machine or transformation test. They cite to Prometheus for the proposition that transformative steps that are central to the purpose of the claims cannot be disregarded in the analysis as mere "data-gathering steps,” and argue these transformative steps render the claim patent eligible.

The ACLU, on the other hand, argues for a much broader interpretation of the method claims. They argue that the term "nucleotide sequence" in the claims refers to sequence information, not to molecules, and that the claims cover the purely mental process of "comparing" or "analyzing" DNA sequence information. Under this broad interpretation, the claims clearly do not require any sort of physical transformation, and on this basis the ACLU argues they fail the machine or transformation test, which they correctly note remains "a useful and important clue" to patent eligibility (using the language of the Supreme Court).

Interestingly, the ACLU never suggests in their brief that the diagnostic method claims would be patent ineligible if limited to methods involving actual isolation and processing of DNA molecules, i.e., the only processes covered by the claims under Myriad's interpretation of the claims. Conversely, Myriad never argues that a method claim that encompasses purely mental processes for comparing DNA sequence information would be patent eligible. Thus, both parties seem implicitly to agree on a consensus approach under which a claim directed toward a genetic diagnostic method is patent eligible if limited to diagnostic methods that involve actual isolation and manipulation of DNA molecules, but patent ineligible if the claim would also cover merely comparing DNA sequence information.

Notably, the district court adopted the ACLU's broad interpretation of the claims, and held that the claims cover a process of comparing or analyzing DNA sequence information. However, in dicta the district court went even further, stating that "[e]ven if the challenged claims were read to include the transformations associated with isolating and sequencing human DNA, these transformations would constitute no more than ‘data-gathering step[s]’ that are not central to the purpose of the claimed process.. . . . Consequently, even if the method claims-in-suit were construed to include the physical transformations associated with isolating and sequencing DNA, they would still fail the ‘machine or transformation’ test under Section 101 for subject matter patentability."

In my analysis of the district court decision, I pointed out that this dicta seems clearly wrong, and is inconsistent with the Federal Circuit's decision in Prometheus. Clearly, these data-gathering steps are central to the purpose of the claim and should be included in the machine or transformation analysis. I suspect that the ACLU agrees with my assessment, and is not even trying to argue for more extreme position taken by the district court.

It seems to me that the implicit consensus between Myriad and the ACLU is correct, i.e., method of genetic diagnostic claims are patent eligible if they include steps involving the actual physical manipulation of DNA molecules, but patent ineligible if they would cover the wholly mental process of analyzing DNA sequence information.

As a side note, another point of contention regarding claim interpretation exists with respect to whether some of the claims are limited to cDNA molecules. In its amicus brief, the United States government has argued that claims to isolated genomic DNA are patent ineligible, but claims limited to cDNA molecules are patent eligible (as reported in an earlier post to this blog). For some reason, in its brief the ACLU argues that the United States is mistaken, and that none of the challenged claims is limited to cDNA. ACLU seems to be clearly mistaken on this point--for example, Claim 2 of US patent 5,747,282 (one of the challenged claims) recites "DNA [having] the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1.” The Sequence Listing section of the patent specification explicitly identifies SEQ ID NO:1 as a cDNA.


Anonymous said...

District courts in both AMP v. USPTO and Prometheus v. Mayo had it right -- the "invention" is the inference drawn. Everything that happens before the inference is drawn is peripheral (not to mention old), and no action is required to be taken after the inference is drawn. Michael Shermer warns of the danger of intelligent and articulate people believing weird things. Every time I read a post by you and Dr. Noonan regarding this issue I immediately think of Shermer's admonition. There is no possible way that these claims are valid under our patent laws. Having said that, I would not oppose a new class of patent for these types of discoveries. Something in the range of a five to ten-year term. My personal preference is a marketing exclusivity period for new laboratory-developed tests, just as currently exists for NCEs. I think this would be a legitimate response to the FDA's recent decision to exercise authority over LDTs (in case you didn't know, FDA never really exercised any oversight over these tests, also known as "home brew" tests).

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Penny Stock Investments said...

If the so called conservative congress is so very concerned about excessive regulation of business than they ought to revamp the entire patent and tradmark system to make it harder for the holders of these patents and trademarke to sue for violations. Everybody pays for the legation one way or another. Many many businesses are seriously harmed by having to defend themselves against lawsuits brought by all the holders of these unreasonable patents and trademarks. Consumers are forced to pay much higher prices for the patented and trademarked services and products than would otherwise be the case. Stop the madness now.